前提

前置文章:

前一篇文章相对简略地介绍了RPC服务端的编写,而这篇博文最要介绍服务端(Client)的实现。RPC调用一般是面向契约编程的,而Client的核心功能就是:把契约接口方法的调用抽象为使用NettyRPC服务端通过私有协议发送一个请求。这里最底层的实现依赖于动态代理,因此动态代理是动态实现接口的最简单方式(如果字节码研究得比较深入,可以通过字节码编程实现接口)。需要的依赖如下:

  • JDK1.8+
  • Netty:4.1.44.Final
  • SpringBoot:2.2.2.RELEASE

动态代理的简单使用

一般可以通过JDK动态代理或者Cglib的字节码增强来实现此功能,为了简单起见,不引入额外的依赖,这里选用JDK动态代理。这里重新搬出前面提到的契约接口HelloService

public interface HelloService {

    String sayHello(String name);
}

接下来需要通过动态代理为此接口添加一个实现:

public class TestDynamicProxy {

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        Class<HelloService> interfaceKlass = HelloService.class;
        InvocationHandler handler = new HelloServiceImpl(interfaceKlass);
        HelloService helloService = (HelloService)
                Proxy.newProxyInstance(interfaceKlass.getClassLoader(), new Class[]{interfaceKlass}, handler);
        System.out.println(helloService.sayHello("throwable"));
    }

    @RequiredArgsConstructor
    private static class HelloServiceImpl implements InvocationHandler {

        private final Class<?> interfaceKlass;

        @Override
        public Object invoke(Object proxy, Method method, Object[] args) throws Throwable {
            // 这里应该根据方法的返回值类型去决定返回结果
            return String.format("[%s#%s]方法被调用,参数列表:%s", interfaceKlass.getName(), method.getName(),
                    JSON.toJSONString(args));
        }
    }
}
// 控制台输出结果
[club.throwable.contract.HelloService#sayHello]方法被调用,参数列表:["throwable"]

这里可以确认两点:

  1. InvocationHandler实现后会对被代理接口生成一个动态实现类。
  2. 动态实现类(接口)方法被调用的时候,实际上是调用InvocationHandler对应实例的invoke()方法,传入的参数就是当前方法调用的元数据。

Client端代码实现

Client端需要通过动态代理为契约接口生成一个动态实现类,然后提取契约接口调用方法时候所能提供的元数据,通过这些元数据和Netty客户端的支持(例如NettyChannel)基于私有RPC协议组装请求信息并且发送请求。这里先定义一个请求参数提取器接口RequestArgumentExtractor

@Data
public class RequestArgumentExtractInput {

    private Class<?> interfaceKlass;

    private Method method;
}

@Data
public class RequestArgumentExtractOutput {

    private String interfaceName;

    private String methodName;

    private List<String> methodArgumentSignatures;
}

// 接口
public interface RequestArgumentExtractor {

    RequestArgumentExtractOutput extract(RequestArgumentExtractInput input);
}

简单实现一下,解析结果添加到缓存中,实现类DefaultRequestArgumentExtractor代码如下:

public class DefaultRequestArgumentExtractor implements RequestArgumentExtractor {

    private final ConcurrentMap<CacheKey, RequestArgumentExtractOutput> cache = Maps.newConcurrentMap();

    @Override

    public RequestArgumentExtractOutput extract(RequestArgumentExtractInput input) {
        Class<?> interfaceKlass = input.getInterfaceKlass();
        Method method = input.getMethod();
        String methodName = method.getName();
        Class<?>[] parameterTypes = method.getParameterTypes();
        return cache.computeIfAbsent(new CacheKey(interfaceKlass.getName(), methodName,
                Lists.newArrayList(parameterTypes)), x -> {
            RequestArgumentExtractOutput output = new RequestArgumentExtractOutput();
            output.setInterfaceName(interfaceKlass.getName());
            List<String> methodArgumentSignatures = Lists.newArrayList();
            for (Class<?> klass : parameterTypes) {
                methodArgumentSignatures.add(klass.getName());
            }
            output.setMethodArgumentSignatures(methodArgumentSignatures);
            output.setMethodName(methodName);
            return output;
        });
    }

    @RequiredArgsConstructor
    private static class CacheKey {

        private final String interfaceName;
        private final String methodName;
        private final List<Class<?>> parameterTypes;

        @Override
        public boolean equals(Object o) {
            if (this == o) return true;
            if (o == null || getClass() != o.getClass()) return false;
            CacheKey cacheKey = (CacheKey) o;
            return Objects.equals(interfaceName, cacheKey.interfaceName) &&
                    Objects.equals(methodName, cacheKey.methodName) &&
                    Objects.equals(parameterTypes, cacheKey.parameterTypes);
        }

        @Override
        public int hashCode() {
            return Objects.hash(interfaceName, methodName, parameterTypes);
        }
    }
}

在不考虑重连、断连等情况下,新增一个类ClientChannelHolder用于保存Netty客户端的Channel实例:

public class ClientChannelHolder {

    public static final AtomicReference<Channel> CHANNEL_REFERENCE = new AtomicReference<>();
}

接着新增一个契约动态代理工厂(工具类)ContractProxyFactory,用于为契约接口生成代理类实例:

public class ContractProxyFactory {

    private static final RequestArgumentExtractor EXTRACTOR = new DefaultRequestArgumentExtractor();
    private static final ConcurrentMap<Class<?>, Object> CACHE = Maps.newConcurrentMap();

    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    public static <T> T ofProxy(Class<T> interfaceKlass) {
        // 缓存契约接口的代理类实例
        return (T) CACHE.computeIfAbsent(interfaceKlass, x ->
                Proxy.newProxyInstance(interfaceKlass.getClassLoader(), new Class[]{interfaceKlass}, (target, method, args) -> {
                    RequestArgumentExtractInput input = new RequestArgumentExtractInput();
                    input.setInterfaceKlass(interfaceKlass);
                    input.setMethod(method);
                    RequestArgumentExtractOutput output = EXTRACTOR.extract(input);
                    // 封装请求参数
                    RequestMessagePacket packet = new RequestMessagePacket();
                    packet.setMagicNumber(ProtocolConstant.MAGIC_NUMBER);
                    packet.setVersion(ProtocolConstant.VERSION);
                    packet.setSerialNumber(SerialNumberUtils.X.generateSerialNumber());
                    packet.setMessageType(MessageType.REQUEST);
                    packet.setInterfaceName(output.getInterfaceName());
                    packet.setMethodName(output.getMethodName());
                    packet.setMethodArgumentSignatures(output.getMethodArgumentSignatures().toArray(new String[0]));
                    packet.setMethodArguments(args);
                    Channel channel = ClientChannelHolder.CHANNEL_REFERENCE.get();
                    // 发起请求
                    channel.writeAndFlush(packet);
                    // 这里方法返回值需要进行同步处理,相对复杂,后面专门开一篇文章讲解,暂时统一返回字符串
                    // 如果契约接口的返回值类型不是字符串,这里方法返回后会抛出异常
                    return String.format("[%s#%s]调用成功,发送了[%s]到NettyServer[%s]", output.getInterfaceName(),
                            output.getMethodName(), JSON.toJSONString(packet), channel.remoteAddress());
                }));
    }
}

最后编写客户端ClientApplication的代码:

@Slf4j
public class ClientApplication {

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        int port = 9092;
        EventLoopGroup workerGroup = new NioEventLoopGroup();
        Bootstrap bootstrap = new Bootstrap();
        try {
            bootstrap.group(workerGroup);
            bootstrap.channel(NioSocketChannel.class);
            bootstrap.option(ChannelOption.SO_KEEPALIVE, Boolean.TRUE);
            bootstrap.option(ChannelOption.TCP_NODELAY, Boolean.TRUE);
            bootstrap.handler(new ChannelInitializer<SocketChannel>() {

                @Override
                protected void initChannel(SocketChannel ch) throws Exception {
                    ch.pipeline().addLast(new LengthFieldBasedFrameDecoder(1024, 0, 4, 0, 4));
                    ch.pipeline().addLast(new LengthFieldPrepender(4));
                    ch.pipeline().addLast(new LoggingHandler(LogLevel.DEBUG));
                    ch.pipeline().addLast(new RequestMessagePacketEncoder(FastJsonSerializer.X));
                    ch.pipeline().addLast(new ResponseMessagePacketDecoder());
                    ch.pipeline().addLast(new SimpleChannelInboundHandler<ResponseMessagePacket>() {
                        @Override
                        protected void channelRead0(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, ResponseMessagePacket packet) throws Exception {
                            Object targetPayload = packet.getPayload();
                            if (targetPayload instanceof ByteBuf) {
                                ByteBuf byteBuf = (ByteBuf) targetPayload;
                                int readableByteLength = byteBuf.readableBytes();
                                byte[] bytes = new byte[readableByteLength];
                                byteBuf.readBytes(bytes);
                                targetPayload = FastJsonSerializer.X.decode(bytes, String.class);
                                byteBuf.release();
                            }
                            packet.setPayload(targetPayload);
                            log.info("接收到来自服务端的响应消息,消息内容:{}", JSON.toJSONString(packet));
                        }
                    });
                }
            });
            ChannelFuture future = bootstrap.connect("localhost", port).sync();
            // 保存Channel实例,暂时不考虑断连重连
            ClientChannelHolder.CHANNEL_REFERENCE.set(future.channel());
            // 构造契约接口代理类实例
            HelloService helloService = ContractProxyFactory.ofProxy(HelloService.class);
            String result = helloService.sayHello("throwable");
            log.info(result);
            future.channel().closeFuture().sync();
        } finally {
            workerGroup.shutdownGracefully();
        }
    }
}

先启动《基于Netty和SpringBoot实现一个轻量级RPC框架-Server篇》一文中的ServerApplication,再启动ClientApplication,控制台输出如下:

// 服务端日志
2020-01-16 22:34:51 [main] INFO  c.throwable.server.ServerApplication - 启动NettyServer[9092]成功...
2020-01-16 22:36:35 [nioEventLoopGroup-3-1] INFO  club.throwable.server.ServerHandler - 服务端接收到:RequestMessagePacket(interfaceName=club.throwable.contract.HelloService, methodName=sayHello, methodArgumentSignatures=[java.lang.String], methodArguments=[PooledUnsafeDirectByteBuf(ridx: 0, widx: 11, cap: 11/144)])
2020-01-16 22:36:35 [nioEventLoopGroup-3-1] INFO  club.throwable.server.ServerHandler - 查找目标实现方法成功,目标类:club.throwable.server.contract.DefaultHelloService,宿主类:club.throwable.server.contract.DefaultHelloService,宿主方法:sayHello
2020-01-16 22:36:35 [nioEventLoopGroup-3-1] INFO  club.throwable.server.ServerHandler - 服务端输出:{"attachments":{},"errorCode":200,"magicNumber":10086,"message":"Success","messageType":"RESPONSE","payload":"\"throwable say hello!\"","serialNumber":"63d386214d30410c9e5f04de03d8b2da","version":1}

// 客户端日志
2020-01-16 22:36:35 [main] INFO  c.throwable.client.ClientApplication - [club.throwable.contract.HelloService#sayHello]调用成功,发送了[{"attachments":{},"interfaceName":"club.throwable.contract.HelloService","magicNumber":10086,"messageType":"REQUEST","methodArgumentSignatures":["java.lang.String"],"methodArguments":["throwable"],"methodName":"sayHello","serialNumber":"63d386214d30410c9e5f04de03d8b2da","version":1}]到NettyServer[localhost/127.0.0.1:9092]
2020-01-16 22:36:35 [nioEventLoopGroup-2-1] INFO  c.throwable.client.ClientApplication - 接收到来自服务端的响应消息,消息内容:{"attachments":{},"errorCode":200,"magicNumber":10086,"message":"Success","messageType":"RESPONSE","payload":"\"throwable say hello!\"","serialNumber":"63d386214d30410c9e5f04de03d8b2da","version":1}

小结

Client端主要负责契约接口调用转换为发送RPC协议请求这一步,核心技术就是动态代理,在不进行模块封装优化的前提下实现是相对简单的。这里其实Client端还有一个比较大的技术难题没有解决,上面例子中客户端日志输出如果眼尖的伙伴会发现,Client端发送RPC请求的线程(main线程)和Client端接收ServerRPC响应处理的线程(nioEventLoopGroup-2-1线程)并不相同,这一点是Netty处理网络请求之所以能够如此高效的根源(简单来说就是请求和响应是异步的,两个流程本来是互不感知的)。但是更多情况下,我们希望外部请求是同步的,希望发送RPC请求的线程得到响应结果再返回(这里请求和响应有可能依然是异步流程)。下一篇文章会详细分析一下如果对请求-响应做同步化处理。

Demo项目地址:

(c-2-d e-a-20200116)